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Paul has been distorted and contorted through the ages by everyone from Origen to Augustine to Luther. This study restores Paul to the person presented in the Scriptures, stripping away the pagan pollution under which he has been buried over the centuries. If you have not already done so, please download the syllabus (provided below) and obtain the required textbooks.


  • Nanos, Mark D. & Magnus Zetterholm, Editors. Paul within Judaism: Restoring the First-Century Context to the Apostle. Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress Press, 2015. ISBN 978-1-4514-7003-1.
  • Friedman, David. At the Feet of Gamaliel: Rabbinic Influence in Paul's Teachings. Clarksville, Md.: Lederer Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-936716-75-3.


The tools used in MJR's courses were selected because they hold particular value in communicating the concepts being studied in a given course. Some may not be specifically targeted to a Messianic audience, but may still contain information that would be advantageous to the Messianic talmid/ah. Others may reflect in places terminology that has fallen into disuse, but does not diminish the value of the information conveyed. As with everything that is not the Bible itself, read them with discernment.

We do not expect students to agree with everything presented in any course, whether via lecture, assigned reading, or video presentation. As participants in higher education, students enrolled in MJR's courses and/or programs should be practicing critical thinking and discernment every step of the journey. To that end, your faculty recites this blessing along with each of you:

.בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה אֱלהֵינוּ מֶלֶך–הָעולָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָנוּ בְּמִצְותָיווְצִוָּנוּ לַעֲסק בְּדִבְרֵי-תורָה

Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha’olam asher kid’shanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu la’asok b’divrei Torah.

Blessed are You, O L-rd our G-d, King of the Universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments, and commanded us to study the words of Torah.

NOTA BENE: While it is the general practice and preference of MJR to use circumlocutions in place of the Covenant Name of our G-d (Hashem, Adonai, Elohim, Elokim, Adoshem, etc.), some course materials (e.g. textbooks, linked websites, journal articles, etc.) may not always do this.

How to Write a Passage Analysis

This format comes from Stuart, Douglas. Old Testament Exegesis: A Handbook for Students and Pastors (4th Edition; Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 2009).

1. Confirm the limits of the passage.

2. Translate the text, revising as needed (Do this step only if you have taken ARAM-301 or an equivalent).
3. Analyze the significant grammatical data (the parsing grids may help here).
4. Explain all words and concepts that are not obvious (concept studies).
5. Identify the literary genre.
6. Outline the passage.
7. Research historical context.
8. Examine literary function and placement, including authorship.
9. Analyze use of the passage elsewhere in Scripture, relationship to the rest of Scripture.
10. Identify the theological issues raised or solved by the passage.
11. Clarify the possible areas of application (faith or action, informing or directing).
12. Investigate what others have said about the passage, compare and adjust.

Please type your analysis double-space, 1-inch margins all around, 12-point Times New Roman font, citing all sources.

Complete and Continue